On February 22, 2021, Zeeuws Archief published a story about 1596, in which the historian Gerhard de Kok argues for more research into the matter. On behalf of the The green Amsterdammer journalist Leendert van der Valk has had regular consultations with De Kok since then. Later Cátia Antunes also joined. She also helped with the interpretation of Spanish and Portuguese texts. Miguel Geraldes Rodrigues, historian at the European University Institute in Florence, searched – in vain – for traces of Van den Kerckhoven in Spanish archives.
Several historians and archivists helped to interpret and transcribe the texts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The author also used the transcription software Transcript. Special thanks go to Zeeuws Archief, National Archief, Archivo General de Simancas, Huygens ING, Maritime Museum Rotterdam, Amsterdam City Archief, Tim Lubbers, Ivo van Loo, Laurien van der Werff, Patrick van der Geest, Mark Ponte and Peter Sink.
Background literature has been used for this study, which can be found in the justification for the first part.
Below you will find an explanation of the most important quotes and sources from the text.
Sources of the text
The text for the states of Zealand can be found in the archives of Zealand: states of zealand, item 2, states’ resolutions 1596-1597, inv.nr 9, 15 november 1596.
For ‘First Shipping’ and slavery, see part I of this ditycon.
The five vessels with ‘sugar and black’ are mentioned in The first shipment of the Dutch part 1 to 3† Provided by GP Rouffaer and JWIJzerman (1915, 1925, 1929).
‘The birch full of slaves’ comes out The second shipment of the Dutch to the East Indies under Jacob Cornelisz. van Neck and Wybrant Warwijck, 1598 – 1600† Part 5, first paragraph. Provided by J. Keuning, 1947. Pages 26-28.
The 58 ‘blacks’ by Cornelis Jansz Boer can be found in Amsterdam City Archives: 5075 Inventory of the Archives of the Notars at Standplaats Amsterdam, notary Jan Franssen Bruijningh, 83, 169-170, 6 May 1599.
The opinions on Pieter van der Hagen’s requests can be found in National Archives: Archives States General, 1.01.02, Resolutions States General, 23 November 1596, inv.nr 3136, folio 578, 579 and Resolutions States General, 28 November 1596, inv . No. 3136, folio 585, 586.
The documents surrounding the trial in 1607 are in the National Archives and are partly in French, partly Spanish-Portuguese, partly Dutch. Archive for the Court of the Netherlands (3.03.01.01), inv.no 5209.33.
Van den Kerckhoven’s memorial from 1616 to the Spanish king is in the Archivo General de Simincas. Secretariat of the State. Legajo 631. Originally requested November 12, 2021. Translation taken from JB Van Overeem. The entire file, which Van Overeem compiled about Van den Kerckhoven around 1940, can be seen in the Maritime Museum Rotterdam.
You can read about the preparations of Van der Hagen and Wissel and the ‘unusual clauses’ in resolutions of the general states, del 9 677-679, via Huygens ING.
In February 1597, Van den Kerckhoven was still in Holland. He then requests the unloading of a ship from ‘India’, according to documents in the National Archives: 1.01.02, inventory number: 4887 (National Archives). It also contains a document dated June 19, 1597, in which Wissel and Van den Kerckhoven impatiently request to sail.
About Mooians, see the Zeeland Archive.
Gerhard de Kok published the book on Zealand’s share in slavery in 2020 Walcheren chains†
The contracts from 1599 between the General States, Prince Maurits and van der Hagen and Van den Kerckhoven (and one with Balthasar de Moucheron) are in the National Archives. Archive Van Oldebarnevelt (3.01.14), inv. No. 3147.
See also the comments of JH de Stoppelaar on these contracts in his book Balthasar de Moucheron (1901).
The 17th-century trial is discussed in detail in Tim Lubbers’ article: Development of the vicarious liability of shipowners and its limitation in Roman-Dutch law, from Journal of Legal History 2022/90, pp. 1-2.
The quotes from Dutch slavery past by Henk den Heijer (2021) is on pages 58-60.
The first slave journey from 1598 by ‘IJzeren Verken’, on behalf of merchant Johan van der Veeken, can be found at slavevoyages.com, travel ID: 11836.
Olivier van Noort’s travelogue was published under the title Beschryvinghe vande Voyagie om den hele Werelt Cloot, ghedaen af Olivier van Noort van Utrecht from 1601
The NRC published on January 1, 2021 about the first Africans in Virginia in 1619.
For Dutch slavery in New York see among others: [mappingslavery.nl](www.mappingslavery.nl)
Willem Schouten has been written about in, among others, Papuans within Slavery, Slavery within Papuans (2016) by Ligia J. Giay.
The quote from Professor Baudius is translated by De Stoppelaar, in Balthasar de Moucheron (1901).